Glaucoma

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Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders that damages the optic nerve, most commonly due to abnormally high pressure (Intraocular pressure) in the eye. It is also called ‘Silent thief of Sight’ as the patient is usually unaware of the disease.

Types of Glaucoma
1. Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma- It develops gradually over a period of time and is generally seen in patients over 50 years of age. The outflow pathway of the intraocular fluid gets clogged up partially thereby increasing the IOP.
2. Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma – Apposition of Iris to the drainage area completely blocks off the outflow facility thereby causing a sudden increase of IOP.
3. Normal Tension Glaucoma – In there patients, optic nerve are susceptible to damage even at normal IOP. Main cause is Low Blood Pressure that leads to decreased perfusion of the optic nerve.

4. Others-
Secondary glaucoma
Congential glaucoma

SYMPTOMS of Glaucoma:-
In Chronic Glaucoma, the patient is usually unaware and does not have any symptoms. It is diagnosed on routine eye examinations.
In Acute Glaucoma, patient may present with pain, redness and blurred vision.

Diagnosis
Non Contact Tonometer to measure IOP.
Fundus Examination to evaluate status of the Optic Nerve.
Corneal Pachymetry to measure corneal thickness.
Gonioscopy for angle closure glaucoma suspect.
Automated Visual Field tests to access the functional visual loss or any blind spots in the field.
OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) to analyse the status of Retinal Nerve Fiber layer. It helps to detected glaucoma at a much earlier stage.

TREATMENT
• Medication: – Glaucoma is usually well controlled with medicines. Medicines have to be taken regularly and monitoring is essential as advised by your doctor.
• Lasers Angle Closure Glaucoma, Yag Laser iridotomy is done to make a hole in iris and create an alternate drainage passage. In Open Angle Glaucoma, Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty is helpful.
• SURGERY:-It is required in patients who are not controlled with medications.
We have all the facilities for Glaucoma diagnosis and treatment at our centre.

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